THE FOUNDATIONS OF MORAL EDUCATION AND CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
Concern for the moral dimension of personal grown, and hence of education, has become a central issue throughout the world.
- This is true in one way for highly developed nations in the West, where it is now increasingly recognized that competition for individual advancement together with the increasingly technical implementation of life had deflected attention from the development of morally concerned citizens.
- In another way, it is true for the socially organized societies of the East, where perestroika is a recognition that planning has left too little room for creative responsibility and initiative on the part of the individual.
- In yet another way, it is true of developing countries, where the rapid pace of change is now raising fundamental questions regarding both the retention of cultural identity and the way in which this can be adapted to provide needed values for modern nations.
It is hopeful that in recent years these convergent concerns have come to be so universally recognized throughout the world, for this makes possible significant progress. The condition for such progress is a rethinking in contemporary circumstances of the nature of the person in community. The goal of this effort is to enable people to regain control of their lives so that they can shape their action in a responsible manner, draw creatively on their cultural identity, build a community adequate for a humane life in our times, and through an appropriate educational effort enable the next generation to live more fully.
An ICR colloquium held at Marquette University on research in education saw this as directing attention once again to the nature of moral growth as a central issue, indeed as the central issue. Its study requires philosophers, psychologists and social scientists; specialists in the humanities and in the interpretation of cultures and their values; practicing teachers and teachers of teachers. The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy (RVP) has taken steps on a number of fronts to respond to this need for research related to the development of responsible persons through education.
(a) Research teams from North and South America--each working for a two-year period in order to combine extended discussion with periods of personal research, writing and redrafting--have developed a series of studies entitled, "The Foundations of Moral Education and Character Development," with separate volumes on the philosophical, psychological, social and pedagogical dimensions of the issue. (See pp. 143-156 below.)
(b) Joint-colloquia with scholars in the various cultural regions to explore the problems, cultural resources and approaches to values in their work in education. The studies in (a) above are focused mainly upon the dynamics of personal growth in the school and community. In contrast, the value content of concrete educational efforts must be either specific to the particular cultural region in which the educational effort is realized or, in pluralistic cultures, reflective of the multiple cultural origins of the students. Hence, a number of joint-colloquia have been held in Latin American countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay), Africa (Kenya) and Asia (Philippines, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Korea and Japan) to study the concrete problematic and resources of moral education in the various cultures. The results of the seminar at Fu Jen University in Taiwan on the resources for moral education in the Chinese culture have been published in Chinese (an English translation will follow, see p. 156 below). A second volume will be based upon a seminar at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. A volume on resources in a Latin American cultures is being published in Spanish (an English translation will follow, see pp. 154-155 below) based upon the joint RVP-Universidad Catolica Andres Bello colloquium in Caracas. Volumes reflecting the resources of other cultures for moral education and character development are foreseen.
(c) Sets of seminars are carrying forward more detailed studies of the value resources of the various cultural heritages, their transformation in this time of change and their renewed application for the future. This is a parallel RVP project, "Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Life." These teams are located at university centers in the various cultural regions, each writing a volume on one facet of this problematic in their culture. These will provide a steady stream of insight, especially for those regions, but also for all who share their concerns and are at work on analogous problems in their own culture. (See ch. XIV below.)
(d) 10 week seminars with scholars from various nations study the implications of the work done and develop a focused study on an additional dimension of the issue in the light of the experience of life in various cultures. (See ch. XV below.)
(e) Workshop/institutes with follow-up sessions throughout the year. All the above is being drawn upon in an in-service institute of The School of Education at Duque sne University. This is working out teaching techniques and materials for work in the schools.
(f) Publication of the series "Foundations of Moral Education and Character Development," jointly by the RVP and The University Press of America, makes this work available to researchers, teacher-trainers, teachers and to the many throughout the world who are engaged in this work or share its fundamental concerns. Vols. 1-III are in print; vol. IV-VI will be published during l988 and l989 (for detailed tables of contents of this and the following volumes, see pp. 146-156 below.)
Vol. I. Philosophical Foundations for Moral Education and Character Development: Act and Agent
Vol. II. Psychological Foundations for Moral Education and Character Development: An Integrated Theory of Moral Development
Vol. III. Character Development in Schools and Beyond
Vol. IV. The Social Context and Values: Perspectives of the Americas
Vol. V. Love as the Horizon of Moral Education and Character Development: A Latin American Challenge and Contribution to the 21st Century
Vol. VI. Chinese Foundations for Moral Education and Character Development
(g) Board of Directors:
Nicholas Barros Olinto Pegoraro
Frederick E. Ellrod Kevin Ryan
Richard T. Knowles David L. Schindler
Jesse A. Mann Tran Van Doan
George F. McLean, Secretary
A. P hilosophy Team
A team of 9 philosophers initiated the project by studying the nature of the person, drawing on both the insights of the ancient Gre ek philosophers and contemporary personalist and developmental insight. The team elaborated a dynamic sense of the emergence of the person in time which enabled it to integrate such previously separated dimensions as mind and heart, intel lect and w ill, kn owledge and a ffectivity along the axis of personal growth. Each dimension was studied in detail, as well as in relation to work in the field of values and character development, and with a view to the elaboration of a philosophical model of persons as free and responsible centers in their personal and public lives. The resulting volume, entitled Philosophical Foundations of Moral Education and Chara cter Development: Act and Agent, unites the importance of rationality in humane life with the too often forgotten dimensions of fre edom, res ponsibility, em otion, va lues and the deve lopment of character.
This volume concentrates upon foundational questions for the definition of psycholo gical stages and educational techniques: What constitutes a morally mature per son; what is the nature of the "moral action" which such a person must be able to carry out; and what are its conditions?
Its response to these questions may be called integrative, for it combines what is valid in several approaches to the moral person. It sees both an obje ctive foundation for ethics in the human good and that the person grows slowly in his ideas concerning that good, and hence must be approached differently at different st ages. It appreciates that cogni tive elements are important in moral action, but not the only factors at work. The em otions, the relatively fixed char acter traits of the agent, moral de cision and the execution of moral action all have parts to play.
It integrates the human person as fundamentally free and sees one's deeds as able to be evaluated according to moral criteria. It understands that the social environment in which moral development takes place is extremely important, but not all-determining. It sees the individual's religious life as playing a foundational role their attention to moral concerns, but not as identical with morality. Finally, its general approach may be described as person-centered: the human person is taken as a central reality around which the various facets of moral action described above may fruitfully be organized.
PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR
MORAL EDUCATION AND CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT
ACT AND AGENT
Edited by: George F. McLean, Frederick E. Ellrod,
David L. Schindler, and Jesse A. Mann
PART I. PHILOSOPHICAL RESOURCES
1. Contemporary Philosophies of Moral Education
by Frederick E. Ellrod 9
2. Backgrounds in American Philosophers for a Theory
of Moral Development
by Jesse A. Ma nn 49
3. Affectivit y: The Power Base of Moral Behavior
by Sebastian A. Sam ay 71
PART II. ASPECTS OF AN INTEGRATED THEORY
OF THE MORAL AGENT
4. Fre edom and Moral Choice
by Frederick E. Ellrod 117
5. Moral Ch aracter
by Walter Nicgorski and Frederick E. E llrod 141
6. Moral Rea soning
by Joseph M. Boyle, Jr. 165
7. A Phenome nology of Moral Sensibility: Moral E motion
by John D. C aputo 199
8. The Human Good and Moral C hoice
by John Farr elly 223
9. On the Foundations of Moral J udgment
by David Sch indler 271
l0. The Moral Environ ment
by Walter Ni cgorski 307
11. On the Integrity of Morality in Relation to Rel igion
by David Sch indler 333
PART III. THE UNITY OF THE MORAL AGENT
12. The Pe rson, Moral Growth and Character Development
by George F. McLe an 361
B. Psychology Team
A team of 11 ps ychologists built upon the work of the philosophers and developed a second volume: Psychological Foundations of Moral Education and Character Development: An Integrated Theory of Moral Development.
Although consistent with the philosophical foundations outlined in the first volume, this work concerns the psychological foundations and has been generated within that field. Its results, in turn, are not simply applied to education in the following volume, but provide special psychological resources for that team and all who are in search of more adequate understanding for their efforts in moral education and character development.
The volume makes a detailed study on kno wledge, emo tion and environment. Certain techniques such as story-telling were studied in relation to the communication of moral ide als. Along with patterns of social conditioning, it identifies the character of personal self determination and control, the multiple dimensions of personal gr owth and self direction, the importance of moral emotions, the implications of gender differences for moral sensibilities, and some modes of value transmission.
Together, the team developed an enriched psychological model capable of attending to the freedom that is the root of the moral dimension of the pers on. This made it possible to provide the basis for an extended coordinated review of the multiple dimensions of the challenge, potentialities and means for moral growth at each of life's stages from early chi ldhood to old age.
A detailed scheme for life-long moral development was worked out with special attention to the following dimensions: the vital, the cognitive, the relation to others, the view of the transcendent and the self. For each of these and at each stage of development the scheme identifies the condition of the person, what they can do, and what others can do to promote their development. Building upon the person as the integrating factor, this elaborates a model of the psychological development of the person through four stages: (a) years 1-7: development of a sense of ho pe (openn ess and tru st), of aut onomy and of imagina tion; (b) 7-adol escence: development of competence (beyond simply skill and technique) in the expression of self and of harmony with one's physical and social environment; (c) adolescence: development, not merely of co nstancy, but of fideli ty predicated upon a combined sense of ability and commit ment; and (d) adulthood: development, not merely justi ce, but of lo ve, ca re and w isdom.
OF MORAL EDUC ATION AND CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT
AN INTEGRATED THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Edited by: Richard T. Kno wles and George F. M cLean
PART I. BACKGROUND
1. Historical Background of the Psychology of 3-18
Moral Development by Sheridan Patrick Mc Cabe
2. A Phen omenological Approach Toward the Moral 19-42
Person by William F. Kraft
PART II. ASPECTS OF AN INTEGRATED THEORY
OF MOR AL DEV ELOPMENT
3. Moral R easoning 45-64
by Sheridan Patrick McCabe
4. Moral Orientation: Alternative Perspectives of 65-89
Men and Wo men by Mary Bra beck
5. Emo tions and Morality 91-133
by Mary Brabeck and Margaret Gor man
6. Moral Ch oice: A Psychological Perspective 135-151
by Eileen A. Ga vin
7. Moral Charac ter: A Social Learning 153-182
Perspective by Lynn Ma ther Mu sser and
Christopher Le one
8. Moral Character: Story-T elling and Vi rtue 183-199
by William Kirk Kilpatr ick
9. The Social Envi ronment and Moral Action 201-235
by Christopher Le one and
William G. Gra ziano
PART III. THE ACTING PERSON AS THE FOCUS
FOR INTEGRATI ON
10. The Acting Person as Moral Agent: Er ikson as 239-273
the Starting Point for an Integrated
Psychological Theory of Moral Development
by Richard T. Knowles
11. Clarification of an Integrated Theory 275-292
by Richard T. Knowles
12. Life-long Moral Development by Margaret Gorman 293-352
C. Education Team
Fourth, in the light of these studies, a team of professors of education from the U.S. and Canada carried out a detailed study of the pedagogical implementation of character development at the various stages of education, both in the school and beyond. This drew upon the model of the moral person which emerged from the philosophical and psychological studies and investigated the means for reflecting that in the educational effort, understood as a task both for school and community, both for the years of childhood and throughout life in a volume entitled: Character Development in Schools and Beyond.
The team of 13 professors from graduate schools of education in the United States and Canada proceeded with a number of common assumptions: (a) that moral values are not simply relative or arbitrary, but objective ("constituent human goods" as they are called in the philosophy volume), founded in human nature and the person, and to be acted upon in order to realize human dignity; (b) that present models of moral education are not sufficiently comprehensive; (c) that an adequate view would need to be based on a more comprehensive understanding of the person as moral agent and include both content and practice; and (d) that the components of such a view would be especially threefold: knowledge, affectivity and action.
(1) Knowledge: (a) appreciation of the nature of the person as a basis for respect for others; (b) the ability to identify worthwhile human values and why they are so, to develop adequate principles, and to coordinate one's values; and (c) the ability to make decisions and imaginatively construct alternate circumstances for the improvement of our life with others.
(2) Affectivity: (a) a sense of self-identity and self-worth so that values might be rooted in one's sense of self; (b) love of others; (c) commitment to moral values with constancy; (d) the ability for self-satisfaction and rejoicing in the good; and (e) empathy.
(3) Action: (a) the development of will as a capacity for mobilizing our abilities; and (b) competency: the development of moral skills and habits for appropriate moral responses.
The team investigated these at the elementary, junior high, high school and college levels. It considered the moral environment of the school itself to be one of the most important factors in moral education. Finally, it followed the reach of moral education into the community, to parents, the media, religion and teacher training programs.
IN SCHOOLS AND BEYOND
Edited by: Kevin Ryan and George F. McLean
PREFACE: Robert Coles vii
PART I. INTRODUCTION
1. The Problem and the Model: An Introduction 3
by Kevin Ryan and T. Lickona
2. Trends in American Youth Character Development 36
by Edward A. Wynne and Mary Hess
3. Society, Culture and Character Development 59
by Henry C. Johnson, Jr.
PART II. THE SCHOOL
4. Students and Schools 97
by Edward A. Wynne
5. Partners in Moral Education: Communities and Schools 119 by Madhu Suri Prakash
6. School Climate and Character Development 145
by Clark Power
PART III. THE CLASSROOM AND ITS CURRICULUM
7. Character Development in the Elementary School 177
by Thomas Lickona
8. Moral Education in the Junior High School 206
by Clive Beck
9. Moral Education in the High School 227
by Robert Starratt
PART IV: BEYOND THE SCHOOL
10. The Role of Parents in Character Development 253
by Thomas Lickona
11. The Role of Religion in Character Development 274
by Thomas C. Hennessy
12. Television Media as Moral Educator 299
by Edmund Sullivan
14. The College Experience and Character Development 328
by Walter J. Nicgorski
15. The Moral Education of Teachers 358
by Kevin Ryan
EPILOGUE: A Practitioner's View by M. Donald Thomas 380
D. Social Context and Values
In discussions of the above work with scholars from various continents it was pointed out, particularly by people in educa tion in L atin America, that it would be too limiting to consider the person in separation from the community and from the historical dynamics which shape its life. Consequently, a team largely of Latin American scholars carried out a cooperative study which analyzed the nature of history and the implication of hermeneutics for drawing upon the values of one's heritage in circumstances of psychological and social tension and change. Their volume is entitled: The Social Context of Values: Perspectives of the Americas.
They studied the importance of time and hence of the essentially developmental character of the person and did this with special attention to those actions of peoples which choose and shape their destiny. Hence, it was important for them to analyze the impact of tec hnology, the creative and imaginat ive aesth etic sense and the overarching and integrating contribution of rel igion to the development of values. Each of these topics was the subject of detailed writing and discussion.
To this it was important to add a dimension of hermeneu tics in order to be able to be sensitive to the various dimensions of cu ltural tra ditions. To be able to do this in a critical manner the team looked into dimensions of depth psycho logy, especially as these relate to social cr itique.
On this basis they were able to consider deeply the dynamisms of social change and the many dimensions of the influences presently shaping this process. This was reflected in the elaboration of a study on social structures and values and also in the development of an expanded sense of libera tion as a context for the development of a contemporary sense of values in fa mily, s chool and so ciety.
THE SO CIAL CONTEXT AND VAL UES
PERSPECTIVES OF THE AMERICAS
Edited by: Olinto Peg oraro and George F. McLean
PART I. HERMENEUTICS AND THE SOCIO-HISTORICAL
CONTEXT OF VALUES
1. Ethics and Historicity 3-13
by Olinto Pegoraro, Univ. Federal do Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil
2. Hermeneutics, Historicity and Values 15-39
by George F. McLean, CUA, Washington
3. Values in an Historical, Socio-Cultural Context 41-74
by Hortensia Ferrand de Piazza, Univ. Nacional,
4. Liberation as Autonomy and Responsibility: 75-121
Habermas and Psychoanalytic Method in the
Analysis and Critique of Values
by James Loiacono, Oblate College, Washington
PART II. VALUE HORIZONS AND LIBERATION IN SOCIETY
5. On Technology and Values 125-139
by Luis Camacho, Univ. de Costa Rica
6. Aesthetics in the Context of Historicity, Moral 141-159
Education and Character Development
by Raul Lopez, Pont. Univ. Bolivariana,
7. The Person: Experience of Transcendence Through 161-191
by Ruben Diaz, Pont. Univ. Catolica de Ecuador,
8. Liberation and Values 193-210
by Manuel B. Dy, Jr., Ateneo de Manila Univ.,
L OVE AS THE HORIZON OF
MORAL EDUCATION AND CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT
A LATIN AMERICAN CHALLENGE AND CONTRIBUTION
TO THE 21ST CENTURY
Edited by: Nicolas Bar ros and George F. McLean
Introduction: Moral Education and the Challenge of the 21st. Century
by Luis U galde, Acad. Vice Rector, UCAB
I. Love as the Challenge, Means and Goal of Moral Education
1. The Christi an Commandment of Love: The Realization of the Perso n and of the Common Good
by Alberto Munera, Pont. Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia
2. Love and the Development of the Chr istian Com munity
by Jose Ay estaran, UCAB
3. The Person and Moral Growth: The Dynamic Interaction of Val ues and Vi rtues
by George F. McLean, Sec. RVP; Catholic University of America
4. Man as the Dynamic Subject of Moral Experience
by Javier Sa sso, UCAB
II. Social and Politi cal Values and Moral Ed ucation
5. Anth ropological Perspectives on Cul ture and Moral Education
by Jose L. Vethenco urt
6. Fam ily Values in Vene zuelan U rban Ne ighborhoods
by Alejandro Mo reno, UCAB
7. Social Dynamics, Cultural Her itage and Values in the R ural Ven ezuelan Fam ily
by Rafael Ca rias
8. An Inquiry on Family Values in Venezuela
by Hector Ro driguez, Venezuelan Bishops Commission on Family Life
9. Social Communi cations M edia and Moral Education in a Period of Crisis
by Jeremiah O'Sulliva n, UCAB
10. Bio-Eth ical Questions and Problems
by Francisco Ab el, Bio-ethics Center, Barcelona, Spain
III. Dev elopmental Ps ychology and the Elaboration of Moral Sensitivity
11. The Structure of Development: Cognitive, Moral and Religious
by Luis Aza gra, UCAB
12. Moral Development and Social Learning
by Anibal P uente, UCAB
13. An Integrated Psychological Model and Ge nder Differences in Moral Education
by Mary Brab eck, Boston College
14. An Evaluation of Cogn itive Development and Moral Education
by Roberto Zap ata, UCAB
15. Moral Development and Social Be havior During Childho od and Adoles cence
by Beatriz Man rique, UCAB
IV. Development of the Moral Ima gination: The Link Between Culture and Human Fulfillment
16. Moral Development as Education of the Moral Imagina tion: Moral Education, Cultural Heritage and the Transmission of Values
by Henry C. Jo hnson, Jr., Penn State Univ.
17. The Availability of Moral Resources in a Culture
by Francisco Javier Du plá, UCAB
18. Moral Education and the Human Mis sion
by Jose Maria San chez, UCAB
Epilogue: Moral Education as Human Ful fillment: The Fundamental Challenge of the 21st. Century
by Nicolas Barro s, Univ. Nacional, UCAB
FOUNDATIONS OF MORAL EDUCATION
IN THE CHI NESE TRADITION
Edited by Tran van D oan and George F. McLean
A. Classical Chinese Foundations for Moral Education and Character Development
1. The Metaphysical Foundations of Chinese Traditional Moral Education.
by Peter Kun-Yu Wo o, National Taiwan Univ.
2. On Human Nature Tending Toward the G oodness: An Un- derstanding of Chinese Confuciani sm.
by Pei-Jung F u, National Taiwan Univ.
3. On ` Chiao-Yu,' An Inquiry Into the Philosophical Foundation of Chinese Culture.
by Albert C hao, National Chengchi Univ.
B. Contemporary Chinese Issues for Moral Education
4. Anthropologic al Foundations of Moral Education Responding to Rapid Tech nological Development.
by Vincent Sh en, National Chengchi Univ.
5. Some Moral Aspects of Adult Education in Taiwan.
by Arnold Spr inger, Fu Jen Univ.
6. The Social Impact on Moral Education: Ideo logies and Morality.
by Tran Van Doan, National Chinese Univ.
C. The Pe rson and Moral Education
7. The Pers on and Moral Growth
by George F. McL ean, Sec., R.V.P.
8. The Human Good and Moral Ch oice
by John F arrelly, St. Anselm's
9. The Moral Education of Te achers.
by Kevin Ryan, Boston Univ.