precursor of Bede Griffiths in __ntivanam
__ram in Tannirpalli, Tiruchirapalli.
non-dualism, monism, not-two
School of ved_nta philosophy
which believes in the oneness of God, soul
and universe. Its main exponent is _a_kara.
follower or believer of Advaita ved_nta.
awareness, ego or I-consciousness.
bliss or even absolute bliss
the doctrine of non-ego. The corresponding
Pali term is anatta. It is the denial of a
permanent unchanging self.
impermanence or change
name of a hill; abode of Rama
It comes from the word __ram_ and means
hermitage. It means any of the four stages
of the Brahmanical scheme of life, which are:
the student life (Brahmac_ri), that of
the householder (grihastha), that of the
hermit (v_naprasta) and finally that of the homeless mendicant (sanny_si)
It is the self. It could mean the Universal
Self, Supreme Self, soul, self or breath. It
means the innermost essence of each individual,
often the supreme universal self in
avat_ra The term
corresponding to incarnation
. They are to be clearly
distinguished from incarnation. Avat_ra is
Vishnu taking different forms and coming to the world to restore order
and law. It takes place quite often,
unlike Christian incarnation.
ignorance or non-awareness.
Bhagavad G_t_ is part of the
epic, the Mahabharata,
in which the famous discourse between Krishna
and Arjuna is related. It is
the most famous part of the epic.
bhakta devotee who
worships the divine I
vara or god. Literally it means
portion or share (in the beloved).
devotion, the act of the bhakta.
Bodhisattva One who
having attained enlightenment is
on his way to Buddhahood and who has postponed his goal of Buddhahood to
help other human beings attain their
Brahm_ Brahma, Vishnu and Siva
are the triad of
classic Hindu gods in Hindu mythology.
Brahma is the creator god and chief of the
triad. Vishnu is the preserver and Shiva is
the destroyer god. Brahma is to be
distinguished from Brahman
Brahm_ S_tra one of the
books of Ved_nta
philosophy dealing with the nature of the
Absolute. It is written by B_dar_yana.
It is the metaphysical term for the supreme
being. It is the reality
and principle of life.The
term means also the absolute, which alone
is real, in classical Advaita ved_nta.
an awakened or enlightened being. Usually
it refers to Gaudama Siddhartah (563-483
B.C.), the historical Buddha born near Kapilavastu in India
and the founder of
wheel. In tantric Hinduism
, it is one of the
six circles or centers of energy in the
human body. In the iconography of Indian
art, it is a disk representing the sun and
sovereignty. God Vishnu carries chakra, a circular
mind or pure consciousness
ittinir_dha control of the modifications of the mind
the pali equivalent for dharma, duty
Dhammap_da the main book of
dharma means the true way, the moral law which
a human being should follow to be pleasing
to god and to men. It is the way of
essence of all beings
concentrated contemplation. It is a state of
mind achieved through higher meditation
The Chinese Ch'an is the correspondence
the soul which has attained divinity by transcending
the world of phenomena and
conquering the cycle of birth, death and
Suffering, pain, misery, unhappiness.
one pointedness, concentration, the longing
a venerable holy man, a sage around whom disciples are gathered for
of the major sects of Buddhism
. It is
a non-theistic and dominantly monastic
one of the main Upani
normally personal God.
the repetition of a holy word as a form
prayer or devotion. The practice is prevalent in Hindus Shaivite sects,
in Sufism and in certain schools of
and reminds one of
the Jesus Prayer.
is the empirical self, the individual soul. It
is the experience
one is liberated from illusions (maya) he
is called j_vanmukta, that is, liberated in
his life time.
opposed to param_tman
, it is the soul of
the individual person
knowledge, nescience. It is also the transcendental knowledge through
which the believer is aware of his identity with Brahman
, the supreme Being.
means action. It is the law of cause and
effect. It is often interpreted as reward or
punishment for the deeds performed in
former lives. It also means ritualistic
The points/spots of power in the body. It
is used predominantly by the tantric
literally means the hill of the cross
illusion. According to Pure Advaita the
whole world and sa
one of the fourteenth century theologians
who advocated dvaita
one of the two epics of Hinduism
with Ramayana). Bhagavat G_t_ is part of
this epic, which portrays the battle of the
Kauravas and the Pandavas
the great rest, death
literally means the great soul, a great, holy
the great saying. This normally implies the
most significant sayings in the Ved_ like
the great vehicle, one of the many school
implies wholeness, integration
mind. Manas, buddhi
) and ahamkara (I-
are the four inner organs in
chanting, sacred word. It is a sacred word,
verse or syllable signifying supernatural
power. It is repeated to deliver the soul
radical, original, going to the roots
used in religious rituals and yoga
some dance as a gesture of the hand or fingers
liberation from passion and this
worldliness. It is the goal of all religious
one of the early Buddhist
from the cycle of rebirth through
the final enlightenment
cessation from activity
the sacred sound expressing the Ultimate
ultimate spirit, ultimate soul.
It is used also to denote Brahman
opposed to jiv_tman.
sacrifice, worship and devotional service
of a deity in the presence
of an icon
Supreme knowledge or wisdom. It is the
spiritual awakening which bringing
intelligence, knowledge, wisdom
is the ultimate material cause of the
It is the unconscious primal
. According to S_mkhya
there are two ultimate realities: purusa and
prakriti. They exist independently of each
other. The self, puru
without any activity in it.
on the other hand is primal matter,
unlimited energy without consciousness or
intelligence in it. Evolution begins with the
coming together of puru
theory of causality in Buddhism
activity and is opposed to niv
the ultimate spiritual cause according to
S_mkhya Philosophy. To be contrasted to
prakriti, the spiritual self.
the noblest or best of human beings
a Ved_ntin, who advocated qualified
Ved_nta, unlike _a_kara.
is one of the three gunas (qualities or
substance) which make up primal
. The others are sattva
good principle) and rajas (the principle or
activity or restlessness or affectivity) and
tamas (the principle of darkness
, of inertia,
a great spiritual sage at the beginning of
One of the two great epics of India
Ved_, the earliest Ved_s
the ceaseless cycle of becoming as opposed
sat-cit-_nanda is being-consciousness-bliss.
The ultimate reality
is the course of spiritual training or
spiritual discipline. It is also the means for
system of religion and philosophy
on the god _iva.
Another name for Buddha
departure, death. It means, at a deeper
level, profound meditation
. It is interpreted
as the stage in which the mind due to
absorption in meditation loses self
awareness and so is the final stage in the
practice of yoga
is the stage in which
one achieves nirv_
a and liberation
the author of Vivekach_d_mani, lived in the
eighth century. He is the founder of
Advaita Ved_nta school.
Forest of peace. Name of Griffiths'
title indicating auspiciousness
Sacred Writings of the Hindus, Ved_s.
Literally means that which is heard.
, monk, hermit
, the principle of inertia or
laziness. One of the three gu
thirst or desire; longing.
Esoteric Hindu literature (and sect) for the
guidance of human persons in the present
age and supposed to be revealed by god
_iva. They place their emphasis on the
worship of the female essence of the
universe, the divine Mother
or on _akti.
the way, the absolute, the Ultimate
The real that stands unmodified or the
Absolute. It is the "suchness" or "thisness"
gods: Brahma, Visnu and _iva. Not really a Trinity, but comparable thereto.
fourth stage of the growth of consciousness
or in sleep
teachings for salvation given by the guru
to the disciple. They are normally regarded
as sacred and secret.
the skillful means with which a master brings
any one to a state of enlightenment.
the end (goal, the temporal end) of Ved_.
They are also seen as the Upani
the most sacred books of Hinduism
qualified non-duality, the teaching of
is the knowledge of the absolute reality
liberates the soul.
the master of yoga
is the mental discipline which its practitioner
attains through various physical exercises such as controlling
breathing, posture and asceticism. It seeks to gain
control over one's own body, to
attain union with the universal Spirit
The chief yogas are Bhakti
j__nayoga (knowledge) and karmayoga (service). Yoga is much
a physical discipline. It ultimately implies a spiritual transformation. Yoga
means to be united (yoked) with the
one who follows yoga